Zero Day Vulnerability in OpenX Source 2.8.11 and Revive Adserver 3.0.1

If you are using OpenX or the new Revive Adserver (fork of OpenX), you need to update it ASAP. Florian Sander discovered a serious SQL injection vulnerability that affects all versions of OpenX and all versions of the Revive Adserver. From the Revive advisory:

An SQL-injection vulnerability was recently discovered and reported to the Revive Adserver team by Florian Sander.

The vulnerability is known to be already exploited to gain unauthorized access to the application using brute force mechanisms, however other kind of attacks might be possible and/or already in use. The risk is rated to be critical as the most common end goal of the attackers is to spread malware to the visitors of all the websites and ad networks that the ad server is being used on.

The vulnerability is also present and exploitable in OpenX Source 2.8.11 and earlier versions, potentially back to phpAdsNew 2.0.x.

The XML-RPC delivery invocation script was failing to escape its input parameters in the same way the other delivery methods do, allowing attackers to inject arbitrary SQL code via the “what” parameter of the delivery XML-RPC methods. Also, the escaping technique used to handle such parameter in the delivery scripts was based on the addslashes PHP function and has now been upgraded to use the dedicated escaping functions for the database in use.

We highly recommend anyone using OpenX to upgrade to the latest Revive version, or as a temporary fix, remove the file “www/delivery/axmlrpc.php” from your installation.

Clients using our CloudProxy Website Firewall are already protected against it. If you want to protect your OpenX / Revive install, you can sign up for CloudProxy here.

Case Study: Analyzing a WordPress Attack – Dissecting the webr00t cgi shell – Part I

November 1st started like any other day on the web. Billions of requests were being shot virtually between servers in safe and not so safe attempts to access information. After months of waiting, finally one of those not so safe request hit one of our honeypots.

We won’t get into the location of the site because it really doesn’t matter, a fact that most critics don’t realize. As is often the case, the honeypot site was quiet without much traffic and the weakness was access control.

We intentionally left the password to the site to one of the top 10 passwords, with continuous attempts it took about 3 months before it was accessed.

This time though we were ready and this is how it went..

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Server Update Time: OpenSSH Vulnerability Disclosed

The OpenSSH team just released a security advisory about a vulnerability affecting both OpenSSH 6.2 and 6.3.

If you are not familiar with OpenSSH, it’s the software used by a large majority of servers and hosting providers to provide SFTP and SSH services. Any vulnerability discovered in OpenSSH could have a major impact to website owners, and the Internet in general.

The good news is that this vulnerability only affects newer versions of OpenSSH, which are not widely used yet. If you are using Ubuntu 13.10 or Fedora 19, you are likely vulnerable. All other Linux distributions appears to be safe. To double check, log into your server via SSH and type the following command:

# sshd -h
OpenSSH_5.3p1, OpenSSL 1.0.0-fips 29 Mar 2010

If you see OpenSSH_6.2 or OpenSSH_6.3, you know you are using the affected versions.

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WHMCS SQL Injection Vulnerability in the Wild

A few days ago, a zero-day SQL injection vulnerability in WHMCS was disclosed by localhost.re, along with the exploit code. It was quickly patched by the WHCMS team and rated as critical since it allows an attacker full access to the database hosting WHMCS:

The vulnerability allows an attacker, who has valid login to the installed product, to craft a SQL Injection Attack via a specific URL query parameter against any product page that updates database information.

Creating a valid login is very easy and allowed by default through the registration page.

WHMCS is very popular amongst hosts, and if you use it, you need to update/patch it ASAP!

Attacks in the wild

Due to its severity, we knew it wouldn’t take long before attackers started to use it in the wild. Yesterday we detected the first cases of servers getting compromised due to it. This is an example that was triggered on our honeypots:

First Name: 'USERX' to 'AES_ENCRYPT(1,1), firstname= (SELECT GROUP_CONCAT(id,0x3a,username,0x3a,email,0x3a,password SEPARATOR 0x2c20) FROM tbladmins)'
Last Name: 'LASTNAME' to '1'
Company Name: 'COMPANYNAME' to '1'
Address 1: 'USA' to '1'

As you can see, it is leveraging the SQL injection (by modifying the first name) to dump the user database along with hashed passwords from the database.

If you are using WHMCS, you have to update it now! Our users running our CloudProxy WAF are already protected by it, but we still recommend the update.

Joomla Media Manager Attacks in the Wild

If you are using Joomla and didn’t update your site recently, you better stop doing whatever you are doing, and update it now. There is a very serious vulnerability in Joomla’s Media Manager component (included by default), that can allow malicious files to be uploaded to your site.

The only two safe versions of Joomla are 3.1.5 and 2.5.14. If you are not using either of them, you are at risk.


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From a Site Compromise to Full Root Access – Bad Server Management – Part III

When an attacker manages to compromise and get access to a website, they won’t stop there. They will aim to gain full root (admin) access to the entire server. If there are more websites hosted on the server being attacked, It is likely they will attempt to compromise every single one of them.

How can an attacker escalate their privileges? How can they go from FTP-only access to getting root on the server? In this series of articles we will show some techniques that attackers are using to go from confined FTP/web access, to full root level access on a server.

In the previous articles of this series, we talked about symlinking to root and using local exploits to increase their privileges. However, attackers often don’t need this level of work when the server is not well managed and/or properly secured. They can leverage a quick path to root (admin) with little trouble.


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WordPress 3.5.2 Security and Maintenance Release

The WordPress team just pushed out a new version of WordPress (3.5.2) that has some security bugs fixed. Straight from their release post, these are the security changes:

  1. Blocking server-side request forgery attacks, which could potentially enable an attacker to gain access to a site.
  2. Disallow contributors from improperly publishing posts, reported by Konstantin Kovshenin, or reassigning the post’s authorship, reported by Luke Bryan.
  3. An update to the SWFUpload external library to fix cross-site scripting vulnerabilities. Reported by mala and Szymon Gruszecki.
  4. Prevention of a denial of service attack, affecting sites using password-protected posts.
  5. An update to an external TinyMCE library to fix a cross-site scripting vulnerability. Reported by Wan Ikram.
  6. Multiple fixes for cross-site scripting. Reported by Andrea Santese and Rodrigo.
  7. Avoid disclosing a full file path when a upload fails. Reported by Jakub Galczyk.


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W3 Total Cache and WP Super Cache Vulnerability Being Targeted in the Wild

As if on queue, almost 7 days since we released the post about the latest W3TC and WP Super Cache remote command execution vulnerability, we have started to see attacks spring up across our network.

In our post you might remember this:

<!–mfunc echo PHP_VERSION; –><!–/mfunc–>

In this example we explained how it was a very simple approach to displaying the version of PHP on your server. There were a lot of questions following that saying, well what’s so harmful in that. Etc… With little help from us the attackers go on to show us what they can do.

Taking a Look at the Attacks

In this section I’ll show you three of the various attacks we’re seeing. In each you can see how they abuse the mfunc vulnerability, one in a more traditional approach of injecting a backdoor and other in a more creative way that allows them to abuse HTTP headers. In either case they all seem to be getting passed via comments, and we give an example of that below. This is obviously for educational purposes only.

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Game of Coins: The Uprise of Bitcoin Mining

Research by Daniel Cid. Authored by Dre Armeda.


One thing you can’t take away from some of the attackers we deal with everyday is their creativity. From time to time we write about new trends we’re seeing, and this post is no different. We’re seeing a new tactic recently, and it may be affecting your pockets, even if you’re not into the latest trend of using digital currency.

Game of Coins

Digital currency you say?

I sure did! Bitcoin to be exact.

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Update WP Super Cache and W3TC Immediately – Remote Code Execution Vulnerability Disclosed

Shame on us for not catching this a month ago when it was first reported, but it seems that two of the biggest caching plugins in WordPress have what we would classify a very serious vulnerability – remote code execution (RCE), a.k.a., arbitrary code execution:

…arbitrary code execution is used to describe an attacker’s ability to execute any commands of the attacker’s choice on a target machine or in a target process. – Wikipedia

It appears that a user by the name of kisscsaby first disclosed the issue a month ago via the WordPress forums. As of 5 days ago both plugin authors have pushed new versions of their plugins disabling the vulnerable functions by default. The real concern however is the seriousness of the vulnerability and the shear volume of users between both plugins.

There are a few posts, released within the past few hours that do a great job of explaining what the issue was and what was being exploited. You can find some good after action thoughts on Frank Goosens’ blog and on Acunetix’s blog as well.

Why Such a Big Deal?


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